For years, Robert Vaughn Young rubbed shoulders with the more elite schelon in the CoS organization. Since leaving scientology in 1989, he has been an avowed and outspoken critic of the CoS, and has testified as an expert witness at several trials. (To read one of his affidavits, click here.) He has been - at times -a regular poster to the USENET newsgroup alt.religion.scientology, where he has offered invaluable insight into the inner workings of the CoS. He is also an acomplished and gifted writer, as the following will attest.
RVY was actively involved in the events surrounding Hubbard's death, but it is only within the last few years that he has begun to doubt the 'official' version of what happened during January, 1986. In a recent post to alt.religion.scientology, he offered this intriguing tale of his own investigation into the death of LRH.
From a post by Robert Vaughn Young (September 2, 1998)
When Hubbard died, everything changed. (duh) I went to the death site (his ranch at Creston, near San Luis Obispo CA) that night along with David Miscavige and some attorneys. Since none of us - including Miscavige - had ever been there, we were met at a restaurant by Pat Broeker who took us to the ranch. We arrived at perhaps 4 a.m. (Hubbard was found dead at about 8 p.m. I was told at 10. We left LA at perhaps 1 a.m. I wasn't always watching the clock, given the circumstances.)
What's amusing in the cult's attempt to DA me is their saying that I went to the ranch along with some gardeners and cooks. Right. Gardeners and cooks were the first to be rushed up that night, before the authorities were called or the body taken away. ROFL! Don't you just love these guys!
Creston was where the story was put together that he had moved on to the next level of research, or however it was worded, when it was announced at the Palladium and to the world. The event was so carefully constructed that no one noticed that something essential was missing, but Ill get to that in a moment. But during the event, I stayed at the ranch to deal with any media who might show up or call. None did and less than 48 hours later, the Challenger space shuttle blew up, bumping news of his death and any serious questions from the media. I was monitoring the TV news via a satellite dish and watched it happen and reported it. While the rest of the world was in shock, DM was happy because we had been bumped from the news. But that is how one comes to view the world at that echelon.
THE NEWBERRY RANCH
I later moved to another ranch Hubbard owned, at Newberry Springs, east of Barstow CA and stayed there for a couple of months. Hubbard never visited it (it was merely a fallback location for him) and I never did see that anyone learned about this one, even the media. I guess they were all hung up on the Creston property, near San Luis Obispo, where he died.
The most lasting benefit of my stay at Newberry was that that was where I stopped smoking. One day DM, Mitoff, Pat Broeker, Mike Eldridge and I were sitting around and we all agreed to stop smoking, although Broeker was the only non-smoker. Mitoff had a horrible time of it. He ended up on Skoal Bandits, spitting disgustingly into a bucket while driving back and forth to LA, and also addicting me to the little cusses. In the end, I was the only one who stopped, making me wish we had put some money in a pool.
In the months I spent between the Creston and Newberry ranches, Pat and I became good friends. He had been Hubbard's closest and most trusted aide and confident for those final years. With what I already knew about Hubbard, Pat and I had the greatest talks. Sometimes Pat and I were the only ones at the ranch, so we eould chat while moving horses or going to town to shop. I began to learn about the life Hubbard had lead while in hiding for those last years, moving between towns in the Bluebird bus and finally settling down in Creston. (BTIAS)
THE STRUGGLE STARTS - WHO WILL REPLACE HUBBARD?
Meanwhile, a power struggle was brewing to see who would take control of Scientology and Newberry was the place where many of the discussions occurred while DM stayed either in LA or in Hemet. (Jesse will have something to say about that someday because he was seriously involved in the ensuing explosion.) It would result in a number of people fleeing (such as Jesse) or going to the RPF (such as me).
A key element in the power struggle was Hubbard's last message to the rank-and-file. Those who were in the cult back in 1986-87 will remember this incident. It was a message from Hubbard that was issued as a Sea Org directive. It said goodbye, wishing them well and establishing a new rank/position called Loyal Officer or LO. (The term is taken from OT3.) Pat was to be the LO1 and his wife Annie was to be LO2 and it basically turned the management of the Sea Org over to them. And since the SO ran Scientology, that meant they were at the top of the heap. DM was not mentioned in the directive. It was later was issued to all staff - with DM's approval and authority - reduced in size and put in a small fram with a photo of Hubbard for the desk of every staff member.
In the meantime, Pat began to slowly take control. I would often get phone calls from him. He would never identify himself on the phone, going back to his years of tight security, but merely would say, "Hi, it's me."
I won't try to give the details of the ensuing power struggle because I was in LA and it was happened at Creston, Newberry and Hemet. (I leave it to Jesse, who was there.) But the outcome was that Miscavige won. And typical of any political coup, there was a sudden purge as he consolidated his power. Anyone DM thought might be a friend of Broeker's who would pose a threat were sent to Scientology's equivalent of Lubayanka Prison or Siberia: the RPF, so I went. For 16 months and three escape attempts.
Now here is where it gets interesting, folks.
MISCAVIGE CANCELS HUBBARD'S MESSAGE
While I was on the RPF, a directive came out from Miscavige saying the supposed final message from Hubbard that named Broeker was a forgery by Broeker and it was being canceled. That same day, Annie Broeker appeared on the RPF. This was not the Annie I had come to know. What stumbled into the RPF was a completely broken person. She was pale and hollow and her eyes were empty. There was no mistaking it. She had been broken and only now was she being thrown away into the trash heap called the RPF. Even then, she was kept under guard, just to be sure.
TWO IMPORTANT OMITTEDS
With the cancellation of the message from Hubbard, there were now two vital things missing that were 100% Hubbard and 100% standard tech and yet no one seemed to notice or, if they did, no one dared to remark on it. But then, as Hubbard correctly pointed out, the hardest thing to notice is the thing that is omitted.
What was now missing was (1) something from Hubbard to all Scientologists saying goodbye and what he was doing and (2) something that passed his hat, which is one of the most basic tenets in the organization. They had been missing at the event announcing his death but with the cancellation by Miscavige, they were missing more than ever.
WHERE WAS HUBBARD'S MESSAGE?
One does not require much knowledge about L. Ron Hubbard to know that it would be completely unlike him to simply leave - especially if the story about his going off to do more research were true - and not leave a message. So if he HAD left as Scientologists were told, where was the message if the other was a forgery?
But perhaps more importantly, where was the hat turnover? I don't mean the volumes of policies and bulletins. I mean something that says, I hereby appoint Joe Blow to take over as... Would Hubbard leave the planet and not pass on the command? Hardly.
Or let's put it in one of the most basic tenets from Hubbard: if it isn't written, it isn't true.
(Note: Hubbard's will was hardly a Scientology hat turnover and has not been issued to the rank and file as policy.)
So the question became (to those of us who wondered), if the LO directive was a forgery, where was the real one? Where were Hubbard's wishes IN WRITING?
MISCAVIGE HAD NOTHING FROM HUBBARD
Of course, DM never provided anything and no one was willing to ask and risk being sent to the RPF with the rest of us. He said it was a forgery and that was that. End of discussion.
For the rest of my stay in the cult, Pat Broeker was never mentioned because, in the cult, you learn what to not talk about. Pat became what in Orwell's "1984" is a non-person. He had been written out of history, with anyone who cared (such as me) being sent to the RPF or interrogated (security checked) until they got the point, which meant (per the head on a pike policy) that everyone else got the message.
So without a shred of WRITTEN evidence from Hubbard and by canceling what even DM had first agreed was from Hubbard, Miscavige was now in control while Broeker had disappeared.
Can you say, "coup"?
But hold on! It gets better.
READING THE MATERIAL ANEW
After Stacy and I fled the cult in 1989, I put it all behind me. I simply wanted my life back and the last thing I needed was to think about the cult. They had taken enough of my life without my adding more. But after a couple of years of drying out, Stacy and I were invited to help with some legal cases and this gave us a chance to handle the material that once handled us. We could now read Hubbard and TALK about the material, which is completely forbidden in the cult. It was like back-flushing a radiator and watching what comes out.
I came across a copy of Miscavige's cancellation of Hubbards final message and I began to kick it around with Stacy. As we talked, I started to comment on the various little oddities, starting with the cancellation itself. I began to remember a few others that I had packed away at the time. We were having a conversation that Sea Org staff could no more do than a loyal Communists might question the a change of power in the Kremlin, and for the same reasons.
AN "ACCEPTABLE TRUTH" IS FED SCIENTOLOGISTS
In the weeks and months that followed, I couldn't shake the events surrounding Hubbard's death and DM's takeover. Little oddities took on forms like pieces of a jig saw puzzle. I felt like an amnesiac trying to recover his memory yet what was there to recover? I was there at the ranch. I was there when Hubbard's body was taken out. I was there when the execs were called up the ranch and told to get an event together, but not being told why. I was there when the attorneys reported his death and then scurried to get the body through the coroner. Etc, etc, etc. So what was the problem? Yeah, the next higher level of research story was the sort of pap we used to feed the rank-and-file all the time but it wasn't as if we LIED to them. (Sort of the way Clinton said he didn't LEGALLY lie.) We didn't LEGALLY lie, did we?
Per Hubbard's policy, they were given an "acceptable truth" because of "the greatest good for the greatest number of dynamics." What that means in plain speak was that there would be panic and disaffection in the ranks if it was thought that Hubbard - the OT of all OTs, of course - was not at cause over life and death. If the tech couldn't help him, how could it help others? That was the myth that had to be protected at all costs and that was what the story did when his death was announced. It fed the myth that everyone so wanted to believe. (And it kept the money coming in.)
WORKING WITH PUZZLE PIECES
While in the cult, I had done a lot of investigative reporting and some of the best I did was working on some of the CIA's mind control documents created under the code name MK ULTRA. When the CIA released them, much was blanked out and working with a team of people hand-selected by Stacy, we went through documents that the media had skipped past because they were so fragmentary and so heavily deleted. In one file, for example, there were receipts for the installation of mufflers on a 1953 Mercury, a tiny battery-powered motor, elevator tickets to the Empire State Building, nose plugs, a receipt for someone to attend a Microscropy convention, etc.
Bit by bit, we struggled to give them meaning until one piece cracked another, like breaking a code. We came up with the experiment and got national news on Operation Big City where bacillus were released (through the mufflers) to test for bacterial warfare. (The elevator tickets were so agents could go up and measure the amount of released bacteria.) It is a story the cult still likes to cite, along with several others I did for them, under my byline in the Freedom rag. Since then, per Orwell, my name has been deleted, of course.
Pouring over those heavily deleted CIA documents was how I felt like while I chewed on the oddities around Hubbard's death, such as nothing in writing from him, Broeker missing, the fact that Denk (Hubbard's physician at the time of death) had also disappeared, Annie's appearance and little things that I had seen and learned at the ranch.
THE BLUE FLASH
And then it hit me. It was what Hubbard calls a blue flash, the sudden insight.
Hubbard didn't die.
He was killed.
I fell back in my chair, completely stunned. In all of the years since 1986, I had never once considered that possibility. Even with my being long out of the cult and directing criticism at various practices and policies, the thought had never crossed my mind that Hubbard might have been killed.
I got a sheet of paper and began to take notes, my heart pounding and my breathing hurried. That nagging feeling had turned into an adrenaline rush that I couldn't explain.
Who was there at the Creston ranch when Hubbard died?
* Pat Broeker - MIA.
* Annie Broeker - broken, under their control.
* Two Scientology ranch hands. While trusted to work on the ranch, I came to see how much they were kept out of the loop.
* Gene Denk - Hubbard's personal physician. (And mine. Small world.) Denk had disappeared for a year after the death, which was one of those oddities, before returning to his practice up the street from the main Hollywood complex.
End of list, a too-short list so I started to add who went up that night in the three-car caravan that included DM, some attorneys and a couple of us "gardeners and cooks." Nothing there.
I looked at the list. Pat Broeker was the only possibility, if he was out and alive. For all I knew, he was dead or locked up somewhere and in a mental state that approximated cold oatmeal. There was no middle ground. He wouldn't have been given a safe back-lines job or I would have heard about it.
SEARCHING FOR BROEKER
So how would I find Pat Broeker, if he was alive. I racked my memory, trying to dig out some clue he might have given me in the months that we were together but I came up with nothing. My tendency to not inquire about a person's personallife had just sold me short. I didn't even know what state he was from. Who might? Who would know where he came from or where he was born? I needed some clue to start the search and the problem was the security that Pat used for his job. He had explained to me how any trace of him had been wiped out, to ensure that no one could find Hubbard by finding him. Plus if Pat had escaped or fled, he was skilled enough to hide from any search as that was what he had been doing for years to hide Hubbard from the authorities.
I finally remembered one location he told me about and sent a message there saying that I was trying to reach him but no reply came. After a few months I sent another and waited. The months turned into nearly a year and I basically gave up until one day when the phone rang.
"Hello?" I said.
"Hi," came a voice. "It's me."
I paused, saying nothing.
"Pat?" I finally said with some incredulity. "Is that you?"
"Yeah," he said, with what I swear was a twinkle in his voice. "How are you?"
What a question!
RINDER WAKES UP
Let's jump ahead a few years when I was in a deposition in Denver, in the FACTNet case. The usual goon squad was there, including Mike Rinder, who proudly heads up the criminal Dept. 20 where Scientology's felons are produced. Rinder was struggling to stay awake in the corner while the cult attorney was going through a list of names, wanting to know if I had spoken with any of them. Rinder's head was bobbing as the attorney asked monotonously, "Pat Broeker?"
I glanced at Rinder. I had to enjoy this one.
"Yes," I said.
I couldn't have gotten a faster reaction with a bucket of water. Rinder jumped awake and looked at me in shock, fear and hatred. I smiled.
The questions about my involvement with Broeker were routine, from a list that they asked for each person I named but Broeker wasn't routine. They soon stopped to take a break. Like the good sock puppet that he is, Rinder dashed out of the room, obviously to call DM. (I so wish I could have watched DM's face too.) About 15 minutes later, Rinder returned and shoved some questions at the attorney and the depo continued. But little was gained and not one question was asked about what Pat might have told me about Hubbard's death, if he had at all. They clearly didn't want it on the record, under oath. I found it amusing, this great powerful cult was so terrified of the subject, not to mention Broeker.
So let me tell you a little bit about Pat: he's doing fine and his sense of humor has improved. End of a little bit.
THE CORONER'S REPORT
Now lets back up a tad, before Pat and I spent several days together, going over old times. I went to San Luis Obispo, the county seat for where Hubbard died. It was there that I got the full coroner's report from a very friendly deputy sheriff. I poured over the pages and noticed that something called Vistaril was found in Hubbard's blood. Since the cause of death was a stroke, I assumed it was a stroke medication so I didn't bother further. Several days later, I called a physician friend and was going over the documents and the medical language.
"By the way,? I asked casually, "what's Vistaril?"
"A psychiatric tranquilizer," he answered matter-of-factly.
I nearly dropped the phone.
"Excuse me," I said in near-shock, "but what did you say?"
"Vistaril is a psychiatric tranquilizer, usually injected through the buttocks."
I flipped to the document where the Coroner had examined Hubbard's body. I read it to my friend, about the needle puncture wounds found on the left buttock, under a band-aid.
"Could that be the Vistaril shots," I asked.
"Could that be the Vistaril shots," I asked.
"Probably," he said. "That's where they are usually given."
I looked at the Coroner's report and the blood sample report.
Holy shit, I said to myself, in my best French. Holy fucking shit.
THE AUTOPSY IS PROHIBITED
I pulled out another document, signed by Hubbard. It prohibited any autopsy of his body on religious grounds, which was legally binding on officials. DM and attorney Earle Cooley had shoved it at the coroner to stop him, leaving him to take only blood samples, which turned up the Vistaril.
So, I thought, L. Ron Hubbard, the man who fought psychiatry since 1950 and who railed against the dangers of any psychiatric drugs had died with them in his brain while signing a new last will.
Plus even the coroner was suspicious of the will as it had been signed by Hubbard just before he died. Coincidences like that tend to make coroner's worry. (I wonder what the coroner would have thought had he known that Denk was gambling at Lake Tahoe when Hubbard had his stroke, as several people can attest. The impression the coroner had was that Denk was "in attendence" with Hubbard not only at death but was there at the stroke, having stayed at the ranch for months. Hmmm....)
I fell back in my chair, trying to catch my breath.
OUTPOINTS? WHAT OUTPOINTS?
Okay, I said to myself, lets see if we understand this. Hubbard signs a will while on the psychiatric tranquilizer Vistaril and then dies. The coroner cannot conduct an autopsy because Hubbard also signed a paper (also while on Vistaril?) prohibiting an autopsy on religious grounds. The Scientologist doctor who was in attendance (except when he went to Lake Tahoe and Hubbard had the stroke) signs the death certificate as the physician attending to Hubbard and then disappears for a year. Then even though David Miscavige has nothing else in writing from Hubbard, he cancels Hubbard's last message and hat transfer to trusted aide Broeker and ousts Broeker, who disappears while his wife is turned into a compliant vegetable, leaving DM in charge.
Nope, nothing wrong here, I facetiously thought. No outpoints, borrowing Hubbard's word for oddities.
I had to take a walk.
STARTING WITH A TITLE
I don't know when it was but I clearly remember a particular moment when I sat down at my computer keyboard. I am one of those writers who needs either the opening words of the article or a working title in order to really start. I had a working title, not for an article, but a book, and I typed it out. Then I leaned back in my chair, took a deep breath and read it. It said, "Who Killed L. Ron Hubbard?"
I leaned back and my eyes roamed over each word and letter. I took in the question and then the words and letters and back to the question. I even digested the tiny pixels on the screen, as if I hoped the answer would leap from the phosphorescence but nothing changed but the black cursor blinking at me, almost mocking my effort. Yes, I thought, it is a pretentious question but it was the one I had to try to answer, if there was an answer.
Then I had the exact moment for the opening words. It was on the night that Terri Gamboa - former Executive Director of Author Services, Inc. and now out of Scientology - called me to DM's office where I was told that Hubbard had died and that I would be going to his ranch.
THE WRITING STARTS
I leaned towards the keyboard and began to write. To my amazement, the words and the scene poured out effortlessly. I wasn't striving for literature. I merely had to capture the scene.
As the cursor flitted across the screen, I began to remember how it happened that night and into the days that followed. There was more that I needed to remember but for now, this would do. Let it roll, I told myself. Let it roll. It was as if I was regaining myself.
Perhaps six or so hours later, I finally stopped, exhausted and sufficiently satisfied for the moment. But even then, I found it difficult to sleep as my mind kept returning to the ranch, Broeker, DM, the RPF, the Challenger disaster, Newberry, the ambulance taking away his body. I was searching for pieces of a puzzle that had no comprehension.
And how could I possibly answer the question?
- From a post by Robert Vaughn Young (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Former RTC Inspector General Jesse Prince
Former RTC Inspector General Jesse Prince
discusses the death of L. Ron Hubbard
Jesse Prince is one of the highest ranking former officers of the Church of Scientology to have the courage to come forward and tell his story. In this post, he discusses the tension between current CoS head David Miscavige and his then-rival to the throne, Pat Broeker, in the months preceeding Hubbard's death.
In the weeks since he first came forward with his story, Jesse Prince has been travelling around the country to meet with many CoS opponents, and, in some cases, filing affidavits on their behalf. For these actions, he has been targeted as 'fair game' for the CoS, which has put both him and his friends and supporters under extreme pressure from the Office of Special Affairs (OSA), the church's investigation unit, also known as 'Scientology's Secret Service.' He has nonetheless made several posts to alt.religion.scientology, including that from which this excerpt has been taken.
From a post by Jesse Prince (September 5, 1998):
Now let"s go back in time to an afternoon in the late summer of 1984. I am sitting in one of many legal/litigation meetings at Author Services, Inc., or ASI. I am in RTC, a nonprofit religious corporation which ostensibly has absolutely nothing to do wth ASI, a for-profit corporation. But David Miscavige finds it convenient at the moment to be the Chairman of the Board of ASI, and, since David Miscavige runs Scientology (no matter where he places himself corporately), he can order all of us to meet wherever and whenever he wants us to.
The subject of this particular meeting concerns the LRH probate case in Riverside, California, and, as always, more corporate "sort-out." Lawyers have advised that there is still too much evidence to prove that LRH is incompetent to manage his own affairs. This is crucial, since the case has been brought by LRH"s son Nibbs, who has claimed that LRH is incompetent to manage his own affairs and that his estate is being stolen by the Church of Scientology under David Miscavige's leadership. Nibbs is hoping to take over LRH's assets if he can prove that LRH is incompetent. So this is a very serious threat.
LRH has repeatedly said he wants different lawyers to represent him, and that he wants different legal advice on how to win this case against Nibbs. But DM has decided that the lawyers LRH already has (and who were chosen, of course, by DM) are the best possible legal counsel. LRH specifically doesn"t like the fact that these attorneys are advising him to back away from managing Scientology"s affairs. Part of the reason for this is that DM feels (and has told the attorneys) that LRH is losing his grip on reality.
In truth, DM was not the only one who knew that LRH was an old man past his prime, with no real "new ideas" or "brilliant revelations" for quite some time. All he could do was say the same thing, over and over: "There are more BTs! Many more than people realize!" Hubbard really was a bit senile at the end there - his brain pretty well fried by a wide range of drugs which he used for his "research" -- and this scared the hell out of his top messengers and others near him.
For many years, LRH's top aide, Pat Broeker, and his wife, Annie Broeker, looked after the daily care of LRH. Pat was the financial conduit between LRH and the vast reserves of liquid cash mounting in the multiple corporations of Scientology which LRH always had at his disposal. David Miscavige would be called by Pat to bring hundreds of thousands or millions of dollars in cash in briefcases to cover "basic expenses" for LRH and his small crew of four staff. Often the prearranged meeting place was near Las Vegas. On many of these occasions, Pat and Dave would go to a casino and gamble away thousands of dollars of LRH's money, just hanging out having a good time together.
But as LRH felt his grasp on the Scientology empire weakening, he became extremely suspicious of Dave and ordered me to give him a security check to see if Dave was trying to prevent LRH from having his way with the church as he was used to having. Basically, LRH was upset that he could not simply romp from one fake corporation to another, wreaking havoc in his wake, as he had always done. And he was being advised by attorneys whom Dave had hired that in order to protect his money, he should disappear for a while. All of these circumstances added up for LRH, and he was not at all sure he could trust DM. He was afraid DM was trying to take over. Sure, he had practically raised Dave from a pup, but still, who could be trusted in this business?
So I was ordered to sec check DM to determine his real motives for passing along legal advice that he back off from his own church. When I walked into Dave"s office he was crying like a child who had taken a crap in his pants and now stank to high heaven. Dave swore up and down to me that he was only following LRH"s own orders to get an "All Clear" -- meaning to get LRH dismissed from all the outstanding litigation -- so that LRH could travel freely again, without fear of subpoenas or worse.
LRH had been in hiding, not only from the public but also from 95 percent of all his staff, for the last fifteen to twenty years anyway. Dave was extremely indignant at being asked such incriminating questions, but because of the questions I was asking him, he was fairly certain that LRH would soon assign him to the RPF (the Rehabilitation Project Force, Scientology"s political prison).
In the security check Dave made sure he told me about the trips to the casinoes, the heavy drinking and the women he and Pat had enjoyed together. Dave freely confessed his sins and Pat Broeker"s sins as well. He said if he was going to go down, he was going to make sure Pat Broeker went down as well. He was very critical of Pat, saying he had a long history of alcohol abuse and recklessly spending LRH's money. Of course, the person who received the report of Dave"s sec check was Pat Broeker. So it didn"t surprise me a bit when Dave and Pat suddenly became best buddies again. I seriously doubt that anything but reports full of glowing praise for Dave ever went to LRH. In retrospect I realize both Pat Broeker and David Miscavige had an interest in keeping the status quo with LRH, since both of them had dreams of one day being the new dictator of Scientology once the current Ding Dong king was dead.
LRH went on spending his millions freely on property and "research" (all this really meant was that he was buying more and more drugs for himself) and buying exotic animals like buffalo, llamas, swans and peacocks at the ranch at Creston.
LRH seemed resigned to follow the legal advice of Dave"s lawyers and stayed away from Scientology. However, he made it known that he was still very salty about the whole deal and refused to make contact as he had done in the past.
About a year and a half later he became very ill.